Why are some Enzymes Dimers? Flexibility and Catalysis in Thermotoga Maritima Dihydrofolate Reductase
Ruiz-Pernia JJ, Tuñón I, Moliner V, Allemann RK.
ACS Catal 2019 Jul; 9: 5902.
Dihydrofolate Reductase from Thermotoga maritima (TmDFHFR) is a dimeric thermophilic enzyme that catalyzes the hydride transfer from the cofactor NADPH to dihydrofolate less efficiently than other DHFR enzymes, such as the mesophilic analogue Escherichia coli DHFR (EcDHFR). Using QM/MM potentials we show that the reduced catalytic efficiency of TmDHFR is most likely due to differences in the amino acid sequence that stabilize the M20 loop in an open conformation, which prevents the formation of some interactions in the transition state and increases the number of water molecules in the active site. However, dimerization provides two advantages to the thermophilic enzyme; it protects its structure against denaturation by reducing thermal fluctuations and it provides a less negative activation entropy, toning down the increase of the activation free energy with temperature. Our molecular picture is confirmed by the analysis of the temperature dependence of enzyme kinetic isotope effects in different DHFR enzymes.
PubMed: 31289693. Doi: 10.1021/acscatal.9b01250. Free PMC