Functional organization of the HIV lipid envelope
Huarte N, Carravilla P, Cruz A, Lorizate M, Nieto-Garai JA, Kräusslich HG, Pérez-Gil J, Requejo-Isidro J, Nieva JL.
Sci Rep 2016 Sep.; 6: 34190.
he chemical composition of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) membrane is critical for fusion and entry into target cells, suggesting that preservation of a functional lipid bilayer organization may be required for efficient infection. HIV-1 acquires its envelope from the host cell plasma membrane at sites enriched in raft-type lipids. Furthermore, infectious particles display aminophospholipids on their surface, indicative of dissipation of the inter-leaflet lipid asymmetry metabolically generated at cellular membranes. By combining two-photon excited Laurdan fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy, we have obtained unprecedented insights into the phase state of membranes reconstituted from viral lipids (i.e., extracted from infectious HIV-1 particles), established the role played by the different specimens in the mixtures, and characterized the effects of membrane-active virucidal agents on membrane organization. In determining the molecular basis underlying lipid packing and lateral heterogeneity of the HIV-1 membrane, our results may help develop compounds with antiviral activity acting by perturbing the functional organization of the lipid envelope.
PubMed: 27678107. Doi: 10.1038/srep34190.