Simultaneous dual color super-resolution image of microtubules (green) and mitochondria (magenta) obtained using frequency multiplexed (fm) DNA-PAINT. The dual color super-resolution image was obtained using the same time acquisition of one-color DNA-PAINT and using the full field-of-view of the CCD camera
Gomez-Garcia PA, Garbacik ET, Otterstrom JJ, Garcia-Parajo MF, Lakadamyali M.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2018 Dec; 115: 12991.
Recent advancements in single-molecule-based superresolution microscopy have made it possible to visualize biological structures with unprecedented spatial resolution. Determining the spatial coorganization of these structures within cells under physiological and pathological conditions is an important biological goal. This goal has been stymied by the current limitations of carrying out superresolution microscopy in multiple colors. Here, we develop an approach for simultaneous multicolor superresolution imaging which relies solely on fluorophore excitation, rather than fluorescence emission properties. By modulating the intensity of the excitation lasers at different frequencies, we show that the color channel can be determined based on the fluorophore’s response to the modulated excitation. We use this frequency multiplexing to reduce the image acquisition time of multicolor superresolution DNA-PAINT while maintaining all its advantages: minimal color cross-talk, minimal photobleaching, maximal signal throughput, ability to maintain the fluorophore density per imaged color, and ability to use the full camera field of view. We refer to this imaging modality as “frequency multiplexed DNA-PAINT,” or fm-DNA-PAINT for short. We also show that frequency multiplexing is fully compatible with STORM superresolution imaging, which we term fm-STORM. Unlike fm-DNA-PAINT, fm-STORM is prone to color cross-talk. To overcome this caveat, we further develop a machine-learning algorithm to correct for color cross-talk with more than 95% accuracy, without the need for prior information about the imaged structure.